# topology.xsd

See ISO/DIS 19136 Clause 14. Topology is the branch of mathematics describing the properties of objects which are invariant under continuous deformation. For example, a circle is topologically equivalent to an ellipse because one can be transformed into the other by stretching. In geographic modelling, the foremost use of topology is in accelerating computational geometry. The constructs of topology allow characterisation of the spatial relationships between objects using simple combinatorial or algebraic algorithms. Topology, realised by the appropriate geometry, also allows a compact and unambiguous mechanism for expressing shared geometry among geographic features. There are four instantiable classes of primitive topology objects, one for each dimension up to 3D. In addition, topological complexes are supported, too. There is strong symmetry in the (topological boundary and coboundary) relationships between topology primitives of adjacent dimensions. Topology primitives are bounded by directed primitives of one lower dimension. The coboundary of each topology primitive is formed from directed topology primitives of one higher dimension.

## Schema document information

Namespace: http://www.opengis.net/gml/3.2

File path: external/ogc/gml/3.2.1/topology.xsd

Properties: *Version*: 3.2.1, *Element Form Default*: qualified